Auto-load programs from a USB memory stick using the File Loader function.
Instructions for THEC64 Mini and THEC64 (Carousel mode)
Please note that these instructions always assume that the latest available firmware is installed on THEC64 Mini or THEC64. For the purpose of these instructions, THEC64 Mini and THEC64 are referred to as ‘THEC64 device’.
Using the File Loader function and a FAT32 (with MBR) formatted USB memory stick, THEC64 device can auto-load programs from various virtual file formats. Supported formats include:
Disk files: D64, G64, D81, D82
Tape files: T64, TAP
Cartridge files: CRT
Stand-alone program files: PRG, P00
To make file browsing and selection less arduous, the File Loader has a display limit of 256 files and/or folders per-folder, including the root of the memory stick.
In the absence of customised file loading by using flags in filenames or CJM text configuration files, THEC64 device applies default settings to any supported files found on a USB memory stick:
- The ‘Fast loader’ option speeds up loading times for programs that use the C64’s standard loading routines (tape or disk). Disable the option by pressing button C on the joystick before loading
- The ‘Faster disk access’ option specifically loads .d64 virtual disk files faster, but some programs or file types won’t load unless this functionality is disabled by using the slower but more authentic accurate drive mode. See Filename flags and CJM files for further information
- The primary joystick is set to port 2. The secondary joystick is set to port 1 only if a second joystick is connected before loading the program from USB. For VIC 20 programs (THEC64 only), port 1 is the default and port 2 is not available
- The type of computer chosen to load the program is based on whether THEC64 Mini firmware is North American (an NTSC C64 is chosen) and running at 60hz or European (a PAL C64 is chosen), running at 50Hz. On the full-size THEC64, it is based upon the Video output setting (60Hz or 50Hz) and what type of computer is current set as the default. Note that this does not affect the HDMI output
- No program-specific functions map to the joystick buttons other than the standard directions and the FIRE and MENU buttons
Many programs auto-load fine using the above default settings. If your program does not, or you wish to change the configuration, please see Filename flags and CJM files.
The full-size THEC64 users can alternatively use Media access in Classic mode to load these files, but the types of file and the default settings are the same, whether using File loader or Media access. See THEC64 User Manual for full details.
Using the File Loader
Whilst viewing the GAMES CAROUSEL, insert a USB memory stick that contains supported C64 files into an available USB port. After a few seconds, an icon appears beneath the GAMES CAROUSEL to confirm the USB memory stick is connected.
Highlight the USB icon and press FIRE. The FILE LOADER screen lists any supported files and folders stored in the root of the USB memory stick. Note that file extensions (for example, D64, TAP, CRT), flags added to filenames (for example _TP) and CJM files (for example, c64-disk.cjm) are NOT shown in the list on the File Loader screen.
Highlight a file and press FIRE. The selected file auto-loads and runs. How long it takes to load will vary based upon the type of file and the settings used to load it.
To browse folders, move the highlight over a folder and press FIRE. The contents of the sub-folder appear. A folder that is empty or does not contain any other folders or supported C64 files will display ‘No files found’.
When inside a folder on the USB memory stick, press button A on the joystick to move out of the current folder. Alternatively, push LEFT to come out of a folder when on the far left side of the File Loader list.
The C64 Fast Loader is on by default, speeding up loading times for any programs that use the computer’s internal loading routine. For those programs that do not load if the fast loader is on, press button C on the joystick (a red X appears over the Fast Loader icon) before you press FIRE to load. This turns the Fast loader off.
Note that the faster disk access function remains on unless you specifically turn it off via filename flags or a CJM file. See Filename flags and CJM files for full details.
Save/Load from USB
When loading a program file from a USB memory stick, the Save/Load state function saves and loads on the USB memory stick rather than on THEC64 device. You have four slots to save to per program.
Save files are stored inside a folder on the USB memory stick called .THEC64SAVE. Inside that folder are sub-folders that contain your saves. For example, .THEC64SAVES\c64-disk\ contains saved files for a virtual disk file called ‘c64-disk’.
BASIC and accessing a USB memory stick
Please note that the only file stored on a USB stick that can be loaded directly when running BASIC on THEC64 Mini is a disk image with the filename THEC64-drive8.d64. Please visit programming-in-c64-basic and faq for further details on BASIC and THEC64-drive8.d64 file.
Learn how to program using C64 BASIC, available on THEC64 Mini and THEC64.
The GAMES CAROUSEL on THEC64 Mini gives you access to the BASIC programming language. On the full-size THEC64, boot or switch to Classic mode to access BASIC.
If you want to follow through the BASIC examples, we strongly recommend connecting a USB keyboard to THEC64 Mini, rather than trying to use the Virtual Keyboard. Please read CHAPTER 6: KEYBOARDS In the User Guide PDF for THEC64 Mini before starting this introduction to BASIC.
Use the provided keyboard if accessing BASIC from Classic mode on the full-size THEC64.
If a compatible USB memory stick (formatted to FAT32) is attached to the full-size THEC64 or to THEC64 Mini, then you can save your BASIC code to the memory stick. For the USB stick to be detected on THEC64 Mini, attach it before BASIC is launched. Also see Saving and Loading below for further information.
Without a USB stick, you save to one of the four available save slots for BASIC on THEC64 Mini or THEC64 itself.
WHAT IS BASIC?
When you power-on a C64 computer, the first thing you see is BASIC. We provide access to BASIC for those who wish to experience programming using version 2 of the C64 variant of the Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
BASIC is a high-level programming language, designed to be easy to use. It is an interpreted language, meaning any BASIC instructions you type have to be translated by the computer before it can run them. This actually happens quite quickly and is done invisibly and automatically by the computer.
Computers like natively ‘talk’ in machine code, which is a series of zeros (0) and ones (1). When they use machine code, they operate very fast. However, people don’t directly program in machine code, so we use a different way to send instructions to the computer, using programming languages that are closer to what we are used to.
Some programming languages are a few steps closer to machine code, and so they are interpreted (or translated if you prefer) quicker than those that aren’t.
BASIC has always been an excellent introduction to programming for complete beginners even though it is quite a few steps away from machine code.
Learning to program using C64 BASIC helps you think programatically, and it also teaches you how to type on a keyboard. Both of these skills are important to learn.
C64 BASIC has a series of keywords that tell the computer what to do next. Learn those and you will be writing BASIC code in no time at all. There are 71 BASIC keywords to discover.
If you think 71 sounds a lot, don’t worry. You don’t have to learn them all at once. Many of them are related to doing mathematical calculations, and only come into play when you start doing more complex coding. More on keywords later!
LAUNCHING C64 BASIC
When you first launch BASIC on a C64, you see a blue screen. It begins by revealing how much computer memory is available for programming. Underneath that information is a READY prompt and underneath that is a steadily blinking square cursor.
Staring at the cursor won’t get you very far. It’s ready and waiting for you to enter your first BASIC commands.
There are two ways of entering BASIC code. You can type it in and press RETURN. The computer will immediately try and run your code. However, to repeat the same code later on, you have to type it in again. That’s not so good. The second method is a lot more efficient. You place numbers at the start of each line of your code that tells the computer in which order to run them. The great thing is that using line numbers also means it won’t run your code until you type the RUN keyword *and* it means you don’t have to type it all in again (as long as you don’t turn off the computer).
YOUR FIRST BASIC PROGRAM
Below is an example BASIC program. We will look at each line of code in turn before doing this for real.
There are three separate lines of BASIC code to explain.
10 PRINT “RETRO GAMES LIMITED”
20 PRINT “HELLO WORLD!”
30 GOTO 10
Line 10 uses the keyword PRINT which sends whatever appears between the quotation marks “” to the computer screen (and not to a printer as you might expect!).
Line 20 does the same as line 10 but will send different words to the screen.
Line 30 instructs the computer to go to line 10, which places the computer in a loop of running line 10, then line 20, then line 30 telling it to go back to line 10 again and so on.
The line numbers are in units of ten just in case we want to insert extra lines of code, e.g. a line 15 that comes between line 10 and line 20. If you type a line of code that begins with the same line number as an existing line, the new line will replace the old one as soon as you press RETURN, without any warnings. If you type just the line number and nothing else then press RETURN, you delete that line number.
Now type each line exactly as you see it (above). Press RETURN at the end of each numbered line to commit that line to the computer’s memory and to move down a line, before starting to type the next one.
Press RETURN at the end of line 30.
If you make a mistake, use the Backspace key on your USB keyboard (or press the C button on the joystick when using the Virtual keyboard). Each press will erase the character immediately to the left of the cursor’s position on the screen.
If you’re happy that you’ve typed everything in correctly, type the RUN keyword (without a line number). Your code will then run!
If you’re wondering how to stop your new BASIC code from running forever, try pressing ESC (on a USB keyboard attached to THEC64 Mini) or RUN/STOP (if using the virtual keyboard or the full-size THEC64 keyboard). You have instructed the computer to BREAK into your code. Don’t worry – it’s not as bad as it sounds!
To see your code is still intact, you can type the following keyword at the square cursor:
Your three lines of code are displayed, safe and sound just as they were the last time you saw them.
Believe it or not, you’ve already used four BASIC keywords. To prove it, here is a table showing all 71 of them.
We’re now going to slightly change your code so that it only prints the two lines of text five times before stopping, rather than going on forever.
5 FOR A=1 TO 5
10 PRINT “RETRO GAMES LIMITED”
20 PRINT “HELLO WORLD!”
30 NEXT A
You should immediately notice that we have added a line number 5 and we have changed what was on line 30.
Look at these two new lines of code for a moment and ignore lines 10 and 20 in-between. These lines introduce two new concepts to your BASIC knowledge as well as two new keywords.
One concept is defining and using variables in your code. In this example, we are using ‘A’ as a container to temporarily store a number inside. The letter A was chosen but it could easily have been the word ‘WORLD’, so it could have read…
5 FOR WORLD=1 TO 5
10 PRINT “RETRO GAMES LIMITED”
20 PRINT “HELLO WORLD!”
30 NEXT WORLD
… and your program would still have worked. You could also have changed the number at the end of your line of code from 5 to 6, for example. Variable names are chosen by you and can (almost) be anything you like. However, there are rules to naming these handy variables for storing things in.
You can’t use reserved keywords used by BASIC or by the C64 for its own system variables. How do you know which ones can’t be used? Well, if you had used LIST as your variable name, running the program would have produced:
?SYNTAX ERROR IN 5
It’s not the most helpful of errors, but if the computer returns that error, you know something is wrong. Remember that index of C64 BASIC keywords? Don’t use any of those as names for your variables and you can’t go far wrong.
Try to keep your variable names short, but relevant where you can. If your code isn’t overly complex, then you can just use A, B, C and so on, just as long as you remember what they are used for!
Types of Variable
The only other thing to know is that there are three types of variable, and they are defined by what type of information is stored in them.
The two most common that you will use are integer and string variables.
An integer is simply a whole number, so no fractions or decimal points. A string is letters or letters and numbers.
How do you say which type of variable you want to use? For integers, you just use a name for your variable, without anything else, e.g. WORLD. For strings, you add a $ to the end of the variable name, so RECIPE$ might be used to store the name of your favourite cake or biscuit recipe, e.g. “Rocky Road”.
So, looking at your amended BASIC example, we know that ‘A’ is used to store a whole number (which can actually be between -32768 up to 32767). In our example, it is only going to reach a maximum value of 5.
Now let’s discuss the FOR and NEXT keywords. These are paired together and create a FOR… NEXT loop. What this does is from the FOR keyword, the computer stores a number inside ‘A’ that starts at 1 and will end at 5 (in this particular example).
Each time the running code encounters the NEXT ‘variable’ (NEXT A in our example), it returns to the line with the FOR keyword and increments (adds one to) the current number stored in the variable called ‘A’. The code then runs each line of code it comes across afterwards (i.e. line 10 and line 20) until it hits NEXT A again, then it returns to the FOR keyword and repeats the process until the value of ‘A’ equals 5, then it stops.
So, add in line 5 exactly as shown previously, change line 30, and then RUN the amended code and see what happens.
Now, it would be useful to show what the current value of ‘A’ is. Add a new line 25:
25 Print A
Now RUN your code again.
You can now see the two lines of printed text are followed by a number that goes up by one each time, e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
It’s useful to see the value stored in variable ‘A’ as you can now see how it changes within that FOR… NEXT loop, adding one automatically whenever it reaches NEXT.
Let’s now make this look a little better by adding something to line 25.
25 PRINT “VARIABLE ‘A’ IS NOW“;A
The semi-colon at the end tells BASIC to keep the cursor on the same line as the text it is printing to the screen, and then display the value of the variable A.
RUN this latest version of your code.
That’s a little better. It’s clear now what those numbers mean and we’ve learned how to place the value of a variable into a PRINT command at the same time!
That almost concludes the introduction to C64 BASIC. However, before we finish, let’s learn how you can keep (save) your code so it can be run and amended in future.
Saving and Loading
You have a few available methods for saving your BASIC programs, with some of them depending on which product you are using.
Press the MENU button and select ‘Save/Load game’ and then save to an available slot as you would do for a game or program. BASIC has four available slots in the same way that any of the games on the carousel do.
If a compatible USB memory stick (formatted to FAT32 and using MBR) is attached whilst you are using BASIC, then you can save your program to a virtual disk stored on the USB stick:
You can save your BASIC code to a virtual disk file on the USB memory stick if have inserted the USB stick before BASIC is launched from the carousel. When launching BASIC, THEC64 Mini looks for a specific disk image file on the memory stick. If the file isn’t found, then THEC64-drive8.d64 file is automatically created on the USB memory stick for you. You will then be able to save and load to and from this file from BASIC.
Please note that on THEC64 Mini, to accommodate THEC64 Joystick, a USB Keyboard and a USB memory stick at the same time, you need to connect a separate powered USB hub (not supplied) which gives access to additional USB ports. Retro Games Ltd cannot guarantee that all USB hubs will work with THEC64 Mini.
The commands to save to the virtual disk are shown below.
As on THEC64 Mini, THEC64-drive8.d64 virtual disk file is automatically created on the connected USB stick if it is not found in the root of the stick. However, unlike on the Mini, you can choose to insert another disk image from the USB stick and save to that instead if you prefer. Just press the MENU button when in BASIC, select ‘Media access’ and then browse and insert the disk of your choice by pressing FIRE.
Now follow the instructions for using the save command as explained below.
With a compatible USB memory stick connected, you can save to the virtual disk file using the standard SAVE to disk command, e.g.
The name of the file goes between the speech marks and it can be whatever you like, as long as it isn’t longer than 15 characters. In this example, it’s nice and short. The number 8 after the filename is a device ID number for the virtual disk drive that uses your virtual disk file stored on your USB memory stick.
Press RETURN afterwards to begin the save.
BASIC will report ‘SAVING’ followed by your chosen filename, and when it is completed, it returns to the READY prompt and the square cursor.
To save over an existing file with the same filename, add @0: to the front, like this:
Please be aware that C64 BASIC won’t give any warnings that you are over-writing the file when you do this.
You can check that the save worked by using the VERIFY keyword.
If everything is okay, you will see VERIFYING followed by OK. What it does it compare the saved file with what is currently in the computer’s memory. If you have changed your BASIC program in any way since you saved, then VERIFY will fail.
Another time, ensure that the same USB storage device is connected as before, and then type the following command in BASIC to get your program back.
What’s on my disk?
From BASIC, you can look at a disk and see what files are on there. To do that requires use of the LOAD command, but in a slightly different way from before. Instead of typing a filename we are using the reserved variable $.
BASIC will report SEARCHING FOR $ followed by LOADING and then it returns to the READY prompt once again.
To see what’s on the disk is simple. Just type the following command:
Instead of listing BASIC code, this time the command shows what is on the disk.
In the above example, we have just one program on the disk and it’s the program we just saved called RGL. The program uses up 1 block on the disk and there are 663 blocks still free to save programs to in the future.
Be aware that if you load the directory of a disk and you currently have some BASIC code on the C64, the $ listing will replace the BASIC listing in the computer’s memory and you will lose your program (if you haven’t already saved it).
If you don’t have a USB stick attached, but decide to try saving to device 8 anyway, BASIC will look like it has successfully saved but when you load the directory of the disk it will be empty. This is because without USB storage, BASIC uses a disk image that can only be read, not saved to. The tell-tale sign is the name of the disk, which is READONLY instead of THEC64. The disk is completely empty and cannot have anything saved to it.
To overcome this, you can always save in one of the four save slots, then later on insert a USB memory stick into a spare USB port, return to BASIC, restore the save slot and then save to the virtual disk file using the SAVE command detailed earlier.
Before we finish, how many C64 BASIC commands have you used now?
You’re up to 11/71 commands already! We hope this small introductions has given you an interest to learn more. There are plenty of online resources available. Also, have a look at our Links page.
A video of this quick introductory tutorial (using THEC64 Mini) is also available to watch below.
If THEC64 or THEC64 Mini is not working as expected, there are a number of things to try:
- Ensure that the power supply you are using is sufficient for THEC64 Mini. This needs to be 5V/1A for the items supplied in THEC64 Mini box. When attaching any additional USB devices, a 1.5A or 2A power supply is recommended, as other USB devices may have different power requirements. If THEC64 Mini is under-powered then it is likely to not operate correctly or behave erratically
- Check that you are using the latest firmware for THEC64 or THEC64 Mini.
- Test THEC64 or THEC64 Mini by ensuring that it is connected directly to your TV or Monitor using the provided HDMI lead and is not using any other cables or devices in-between
- If you are using a USB hub on THEC64 Mini, we recommend a powered hub. Also see point 1
- If there is a time delay between performing an action on the joystick and seeing it on the screen, your TV is likely to be applying image processing which can cause a noticeable delay. Switch off all image processing options by consulting your TV manual. Some TVs include a special ‘Game Mode’ that you can also try
- If THEC64 Joystick is not working correctly, try connecting it to a desktop computer and testing it there. THEC64 Joystick works on Windows, Mac and Linux computers
- You can test the USB ports by connecting a USB gamepad/controller, USB keyboard or USB memory stick to each port and test them in turn
- If your USB memory stick isn’t detected, ensure that the USB stick is formatted to FAT32 with MBR (Master Boot Record). If formatting using Windows 10, ensure you perform a full format rather than enable ‘quick format’.
- For loading a D64 file from a USB memory stick when accessing BASIC on THEC64 Mini, the file must be named THEC64-drive8.d64. If you are naming the file using Windows, ensure you can see file extensions otherwise your file might be accidentally named THEC64-drive8.d64.d64 instead (for example). See Loading Programs in C64 BASIC for more information
- If your TV is playing sound from THEC64 Mini but is not displaying the picture, then it is likely to be unable to display the output signal. The North American model displays at 60Hz, whilst the European model displays at 50Hz. Try a different TV or monitor.
- You can also try a Factory reset, which deletes your chosen Language, Display and (on THEC64 Mini) the USB Keyboard settings, along with any stored saved game positions. A factory reset doesn’t remove any saves stored on a USB memory stick. This reset effectively restores THEC64 or THEC64 Mini to its initial factory condition (excluding the current firmware, which remains unaffected).
Aside from the File Loader function, you can also load and run your own legally obtained C64 programs (including games, demos, utilities and so on) from BASIC on THEC64 Mini by following these simple instructions.
Please note that only C64 programs supplied by Retro Games Ltd for use on THEC64 Mini are covered by the Warranty. This does not affect your statutory rights. Please read the Warranty for further details.
First step: Preparation
1. You need a USB memory stick (maximum size of 64Gb) which must be formatted using FAT32
2. Copy the d64 disk file that contains the program you want to load onto the root of the USB memory stick
3. Rename your disk file on the memory stick to THEC64-drive8.d64
4. You are now ready to load your program from BASIC on THEC64 Mini.
Second step: Loading your Program
1. Make sure you’re at the Carousel screen then insert your USB stick into THEC64 Mini
2. If you have firmware v1.1.0 or above installed, a USB icon will appear on the HOME screen after a few seconds
3. Launch BASIC from the Carousel
4. Type the following two commands exactly as shown here:
4. Identify the name of the program you want to run from the list displayed
5. Type the following command, replacing NAME with the name of the program from step 4:
6. Some programs will load and start automatically. For others, you may need to type the following command afterwards:
Don’t forget to press RETURN after typing each command.
There are some limitations to the existing method of loading programs from a USB memory stick when in BASIC:
- For C64 programs that need a joystick, only joystick port 2 is available from BASIC.
- Joystick buttons other than the MENU button and the two main FIRE buttons have no functionality in programs loaded from a USB memory stick in BASIC.
If these limitations are too restrictive for you, please see the File Loader for an alternative method for loading other programs on THEC64 Mini.
Due to licensing requirements, we cannot offer advice as to which programs currently work using this method and which ones do not.